This Website is published by the Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le développement international (Ferdi)
63, boulevard François Mitterrand
63000 Clermont Ferrand
Tél : +33 (0) 4 73 17 75 35
Mail :


The content (which shall include but not be limited to information, texts, graphs, data, images, visuals as well as the form of all said components and the actual Website itself) is protected by copyright and/or other intellectual property rights. The content is the exclusive property of its publisher.


The Ferdi grants you the right to download and share the content subject to the following conditions: (I) if a download function is available, (II) if it is used for non-commercial purposes (III) and in good faith and (IV) if both the proprietary notices as well as the on-line publication date appearing in the content are left intact, where such information is shown. This right must in no way be interpreted as conferring a license, in particular pertaining to a brand or logo.

The content of this Website is subject to modification without notice and is published without any warranty whatsoever, whether express or implied, and may not give rise to any entitlement to compensation.

Website publisher:

Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le développement international

Publication Director:

Michaël Goujon, Associate professor

Patrick Guillaumont, President of Ferdi

Contributors :

Martine Bouchut, Engineer Assistant at Université d’Auvergne, Computer scientist at CERDI

Joël Cariolle, Research Officer at Ferdi

Sosso Feindouno, Research Assistant at Ferdi

Vincent Mazenod, Engineer CNRS, Computer scientist and Web master at CERDI

Fabienne Rouanet, Communication Manager at Ferdi

Laurent Wagner, Research Officer at Ferdi

Created and Hosted by:

9 Rue Philippe Marcombes
63 000 Clermont Ferrand
Email :